WASCAL Seat GHANA
WASCAL TOGO
WASCAL du BENIN
WASCAL SENEGAL
WASCAL Ghana: Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology
Nigeria Futminna
Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
WASCAL-NIGER | CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY

Master's Research Programs

CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY

MRP-CCE

Book of Abstract Master Research Thesis Proposal 2017

Master thesis proposal project

Topic: Modelling Streamflow Under Climate Change in the Volta Basin: Impacts on Future Hydropower Potential in Ghana.

Abstract

Electricity generation in Ghana from hydropower (HP) has been observed to be greatly affected by changes in climatic conditions and extreme weather events. Mainly, changes in rainfall and temperature are known to affect stream flow which has a direct influence on hydropower potential (HPP). Consequently, the future climate condition with the uncertain trends in the different climate parameters will have serious impacts on hydropower production. In this study, the climate projection output of an ensemble of CORDEX models up to 2040 will be used to force the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model in order to simulate the future streamflow pattern in the Volta Basin. Land cover, vegetation, soil characteristics, elevation and other useful information will also be used in the model to ensure that the characteristics of the basin are considered in the  simulations. The expected results will show the spatial and temporal pattern of future streamflow  in the Volta basin. This will be used to identify potential implications for HPP in Ghana. Ultimately, the study will help to suggest recommendations on how to make Ghana’s HP and electricity sector in general, more resilient in the face of changing climatic conditions in future.

Keywords: Hydropower generation, Variable Infiltration Capacity, CORDEX, ensemble, discharge

Student: DANSO Derrick Kwadwo

WASCAL MRP-CCE Niger

Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey

Tel.: +227 20 31 50 14 / 96 89 79 81

E-mail : wascalne@wascal-ne.org

B.P: 10662 FAST Niamey

Master thesis proposal project

Topic: Simulating the impact of climate change on the solar energy potential over West Africa.

Abstract:

With the increasing energy demand and in order to mitigate the impact of climate change, solar energy technologies are growing rapidly among alternatives sources of energy.

 This study will focus on the city of Bamako and the regions of Mopti close to the desert to do a comparative study between the two to assess the solar energy potential, the factors to consider are downward shortwave radiation, surface temperature (grass minimum or soil temperature), 2m temperature above the soil, 10m wind, Maximum temperature.

The output from an atmospheric model could be used as input to an energy production model. Create a map of production for each month of the year for the whole country(MALI). For selected locations within a country, plot graphs by using WRF data, this study will use the (2000-2010) and (2020,2030,2050) data to do the work.

Large scale solar power plants require huge investment therefore having knowledge about climate change impacts on the future of solar energy potential in Mali will help investors, designers and policy makers to be able to make proper financial planning, technology selection, energy output projections and mitigation measures in place.

Key word: climate change, solar energy, eater research and forecasting(WRF), solar energy efficiency.

Student: Fatoumata DIALLO

WASCAL MRP-CCE Niger

Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey

Tel.: +227 20 31 50 14 / 96 89 79 81

E-mail : wascalne@wascal-ne.org

B.P: 10662 FAST Niamey

Master thesis proposal project

Topic: Technical performances and socio-economic impacts of mini solar systems in rural area (Niger).

ABSTRACT

In the context of climate change mitigation and adaptation for a sustainable energy and energy efficiency, the use of renewable and clean energy becomes increasingly paramount. Thus, many solar energy rural programs are set up across the world. However, due to environmental and meteorological conditions, installed PV systems efficiency mostly depend on the geographical location. Therefore, technical performances of PV panels in rural area should be periodically assessed with the design criteria for better performance needs. Based on European Guidelines, the IEC Standard 61724, panel meters (V-meters, A-meters, Ah or kWh-meters) will be used to measure current and voltage in order to compute power, efficiency, performance ratio (PR)… Pyranometers and temperature sensors will be used to assess respectively radiation and back panels temperature. Elsewhere, in order to evaluate PV systems impacts on rural population, social and economic data from field survey (qualitative and quantitative) and from Niger Institute of Statistic will also be collected. Afterwards, the case study area environmental and meteorological conditions impacts on installed PVs system performance will be assessed and the socio-economic benefits for local population estimated. The obtained results will allow to improve PV panels efficiency by taking into account rural area environmental and climatic characteristics. It will help also policy makers and stakeholders to enhance the socioeconomic impacts of rural off-grid PVs systems.

Keywords: technical performances, socioeconomic impacts, rural, PV systems, climate change.

Student: ABASS Harou  Hadiza

WASCAL MRP-CCE Niger

Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey

Tel.: +227 20 31 50 14 / 96 89 79 81

E-mail : wascalne@wascal-ne.org

B.P: 10662 FAST Niamey

Master thesis proposal project

Topic: Performing the measurement of PV under Niamey climatic conditions.

ABSTRACT

Niger has significant energy potential, rich and varied, that is weakly exploited for domestic use. It consists of biomass (firewood and agricultural residues, the main source used by households for cooking), uranium, mineral coal, oil, natural gas, hydroelectricity and solar energy This study will address one element of this problem by considering solar energy. in the first step, the map of unsuitable regions will be extracted based on the defined constraints. In the next step, in order to identify the suitability of different regions, some defined criteria, including solar radiation, average annual temperatures, distance from power transmission lines, distance from major roads, distance from residential area, elevation, slope, land use, average annual cloudy days, average annual humidity and average annual dusty days, will be identified .This work is going to determine the area in which it can be implemented a solar PV power plant towards  in  different regions of the country in order  to meet the electricity demand for now and for future. It will also include a case study near Niamey. For that I will use ArcGIS software to handle different variables, including topological, spatial, weather variation, vegetation to identify the vacant land. I will calculate the amount of solar radiation that can be converted into electricity to supply Niamey with power. The results can be used to determine the ideal location for a solar power facility and facilitate the construction of a solar PV power plant to supply the electricity for the whole city These methods could then be replicated in other parts of the country.

keyword solar suitability, GIS, Niamey, pv power plant.


Student: IBRAHIM TANIMOUNE Laouali

WASCAL MRP-CCE Niger

Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey

Tel.: +227 20 31 50 14 / 96 89 79 81

E-mail : wascalne@wascal-ne.org

B.P: 10662 FAST Niamey

Master thesis proposal project

Topic: Impact of climate change on electricity exchange between Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana.

Abstract

Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana are generally facing drought and flooding. These extreme events of climate change are expected to impact directly the hydropower and thermal plant which are the key component of the electricity supply in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana. This phenomenon will affect all the electricity system including the electricity exchange between those two countries, electricity supply, and generation and transmission line. Thus, the electricity market between Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana can be put at risk and will become more vulnerable to climate change. So, the aim of this study is to assess the impact of climate change on electricity market between Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana and to provide recommendation for adaptation and mitigation strategies. To achieve this goal the inductive approach can be used as methodology, with the following data: electricity supply data, electricity consumption,electricity generation data, price of electricity exchange between Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana, historical incident report related to the electricity market and the interconnection lines between Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana, historical reports planning, current mitigation and adaptation approaches, electricity import and export data, climatic data (temperature and precipitation) from Coupled Model Inter comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5).The result will show how temperature and precipitation will impact the electricity market between Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana. This information will help the regional electricity market to be more sustainable and resilient to adverse effects of climate change.

Key words: electricity market, climate change, interconnection line.


Student: KOUADIO N’Da Amoin Edith Julie

WASCAL MRP-CCE Niger

Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey

Tel.: +227 20 31 50 14 / 96 89 79 81

E-mail : wascalne@wascal-ne.org

B.P: 10662 FAST Niamey

Master thesis proposal project

Topic: Hybrid off-grid renewable power system for sustainable electrification in Benin, Colline Area.

Abstract

The depletion of conventional sources of energy and their environmental concern has resulted in growing worldwide interest in renewable energy sources(RES). As renewable energy is free and available everywhere, it offers a unique opportunity to provide electricity to people living in rural areas that do not have access to the grid and helps tackle the issue of lack of electricity access in most developing countries. Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems (HRES) are cost effective and provide a more reliable and stable power supply. This study aims first to analyze the technoeconomic feasibility of a Hybrid off-grid Renewable Energy System(HRES) for sustainable electrification in a remote area in Colline Division, Benin. Then, it discusses the general socioeconomic barriers and renewable energy policy that restrain the expansion of rural electrification projects in Benin. The HRES proposed here will involve the combination of many power technologies such as solar, wind, battery, and diesel generator. The Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software will be used to model, optimize, and simulate the suitable HRES that meet the load demand based on the lower Net Present Cost(NPC). HOMER needs mainly as input information the load demand, the wind speed, solar radiation, and equipment characteristic and costs.  This information will be obtained through field survey, data collection from meteorological stations, literature review, technical catalogue of manufacturers, and an internet survey. This study will show the possibility of sustainable electrification using standalone HRES to improve the electricity access in rural areas in Benin. Furthermore, it could serve as a base for future studies and technical support for the implementation of off-grid HRES in the country. Moreover, it will raise awareness to policy makers on off-grid HRES as a viable solution to solve the current problem of electricity access in the country, while providing some key recommendations to ameliorate the socio-economic environment and renewable energy policy.

Key words: Hybrid system, Solar, Wind, HOMER, Rural Electrification, off-grid


Student: Thierry ODOU

WASCAL MRP-CCE Niger

Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey

Tel.: +227 20 31 50 14 / 96 89 79 81

E-mail : wascalne@wascal-ne.org

B.P: 10662 FAST Niamey

Master thesis proposal project

Topic: A System Dynamic Model of Distributed Generation for Energy Security in Niamey.

Abstract

Countries around the equator receive a great amount of insolation by year, which means they receive a lot of solar energy. This energy can be used to produce electricity, but unfortunately most of the time the energy is wasted as heat in these countries, and became a real barrier to energy security. Niger is among these countries. Its geographical positions are:1) longitude 0°-17.5° and 2) latitude 11°-24°. The country is close to the equator, as a consequence, it is very hot during summer months, such as April, May, and October. Electricity demand in Niamey, the capital city, is far higher than the supply during the hot season. This study aims at sorting ways that can help reach energy security and independence in Niamey in order to develop the economic sector. System Dynamics (SD) approach is proposed to achieve this goal. SD link theories, procedures, and philosophies will be utilized to analyze the behavior of some complex feedback (FB) systems, such as power supply and demand trends and the subsequent GHG emissions. In order to measure the impact of Distributed Generation (DG), which is the implementation of small renewable power sources and energy storage systems (ESS) in the vicinity of the consumers, a thorough investigation of various power supply and demand scenarios are proposed. The expected results of this work is to test some policies, which may lead to the: 1) reduction of transmission and distribution losses; 2) availability and reliability of electricity; 3) reduction of energy import from Nigeria; 4) implementation and impact of ESS in Niamey; and 5) reduction of GHG emissions from conventional power generation. The results can be used by the policy makers to lead Niamey to energy security in a near future.


Keywords: System dynamics, Distributed Generation, Niger, Niamey, Energy Security, Greenhouse gas



Student: Modou POUYE

WASCAL MRP-CCE Niger

Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey

Tel.: +227 20 31 50 14 / 96 89 79 81

E-mail : wascalne@wascal-ne.org

B.P: 10662 FAST Niamey

Master thesis proposal project

Topic: Impact of Climate Change on Solar Monocrystalline Photovoltaic System Efficiency In The Near Future: Case of Ouagadougou.

ABSTRACT

Reach the level of energy security for sustainable development and in order to mitigate the impact of climate change, PV system technologies are growing rapidly among alternatives sources of energy. According to the study, PV system efficiency will be influenced by the local weather conditions. Research about the efficiency of PV system operating under weather condition in Ouagadougou is non mature. The principal objective of this research is to determine the impact of meteorological parameters (ambient temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind velocity) on PV system efficiency in Ouagadougou weather condition and to determine how change of the climate may impact in the future PV system. This objective will be achieved by using first statistical tools (correlation coefficient) to estimate the relationship between power of PV and the meteorological variables. As observed. Secondly validate the CORDEX data to know their ability to simulate solar radiation, relative humidity, ambient temperature and wind speed; thirdly use of quantile-quantile method to correct model biases, use the observed identified relationship to project under the hypothesis that the correlation and relationship observed in present-day (1975-2004) remain unchanged in near future (2031-2060). At the end calculate the change in the mean between present day and future to evaluate the impact of climate change on monocrystalline PV modules efficiency. As expected result climate change will decrease photovoltaic module efficiency under Ouagadougou climate conditions in the near future because of the increasing temperature and humidity.

Keywords: climate change, meteorological parameters, monocrystalline PV, photovoltaic module efficiency, CORDEX data.

Student:  Safiata SAWADOGO

WASCAL MRP-CCE Niger

Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey

Tel.: +227 20 31 50 14 / 96 89 79 81

E-mail : wascalne@wascal-ne.org

B.P: 10662 FAST Niamey

Master thesis proposal project

Topic: A system dynamics approach to energy planning and climate change in Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

Population growth and industrialization continues to increase demand for energy resources in West Africa, Nigeria in particular. Meeting energy supply-demand needs and mitigation of the increasing CO2 emissions have been a challenge in Nigeria. This study aims to investigate the impacts of the future Mambilla hydropower dam (3050MW) and other proposed energy projects on the Nigerian energy mix, along with subsequent CO2 emissions patterns A system dynamics (SD) modeling approach will be developed using STELLA platform to model energy management and its correlation to climate variables. The time span for the model is from 2010 to 2040 and data from the past 10 years (2006 to 2015) will be used as benchmark. The model will take into consideration the following factors: i) economic sectors; ii) population; iii) the per capita consumption of electricity for both conventional and renewable alternatives energy sources; iv) CO2 emission trends; v) The Mambilla dam project if completed by 2022; and vi) CMIP5 model climate scenarios i.e. relative humidity, rainfall and temperature. The model will be applied to the Nigerian energy sector as a whole, considering Nigeria’s fast population growth, GDP per capita and electricity consumption per capita. Nigeria could be energy self-sufficient upon the completion of the Mambilla hydropower dam at the horizon of 2022 and other renewable energy (RE) and non RE in Nigerian energy mix, cutting down local and national fossil fuel CO2 emissions This model could also serve as a guide to policy makers in Nigeria and other emerging nations.

Keywords: system dynamics, electricity supply, carbon dioxide, Mambilla hydropower dam, climate change, Nigeria.

Student:  SHARI Babajide Epe

WASCAL MRP-CCE Niger

Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey

Tel.: +227 20 31 50 14 / 96 89 79 81

E-mail : wascalne@wascal-ne.org

B.P: 10662 FAST Niamey

Master thesis proposal project

Topic: Energy efficiency potential and its impact on long term electricity consumption in urban residential sector: a case study of Lomé, Togo.

Abstract

In the current context of climate change, population growth, environmental concerns, and the increasing energy demand, both energy efficiency and renewable energy(RE) are considered as pillars for sustainable energy policies. Efficient energy use could help not only to save energy, but also cut down greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in emerging countries where less efficient household appliances are used. These two schemes will be specifically applied to the residential sector in Lomé, the capital city of Togo. The city’s electrical appliance market, is flooded with imports of used low-efficiency appliances from Europe. In Lomé, because of low and middle-income status the number of households that can afford major household appliances is expected to increase, with the possibility of many consumers affording inefficient appliances that will burden electricity consumption. Energy efficiency (EE) is internationally recognized as a low-cost, readily available resource that could help improve electricity supply. The purpose of this study is to assess inefficient installed household appliances (lighting, refrigeration, heating, cooling, domestic iron, ventilation, etc.) and simulate their substitution by more efficient ones using System Dynamics(SD) model. A survey will be conducted to assess appliances. Along with SD modeling, SPSS software will be utilized to analyze the data. SD model using Stella software, will be used to estimate electricity consumed in households in Lomé from 2000 to 2016 and the results will be compared with existing data for validation. Then the SD model will be used to analyze Lomé’s future residential electricity consumption by 2050 under three main scenarios (Business-As-Usual scenario, New Policies Scenario, Extreme Case Scenario). The results are expected to show positive impacts on energy consumption in the residential sector as whole and a significant reduction on GHG emissions. The study will bring out a clear overview on current low efficient households’ appliances in Lomé and is also expected to indicate an increasing electricity consumption beyond the normal level. The study will further give an evidence of energy and money saving using efficient appliances. Results may be looked as “scientific proofs” for decision makers in implementing new and efficient energy policies in residential sector; this could be first the step for promoting RE in Lomé.

Keys words: electricity consumption, Lomé, residential sector, energy efficiency, long term, System Dynamics, Stella.


Student : AMEGA Kokou

WASCAL MRP-CCE Niger

Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey

Tel.: +227 20 31 50 14 / 96 89 79 81

E-mail : wascalne@wascal-ne.org

B.P: 10662 FAST Niamey

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Tel.: +227 20 31 50 14 / 96 89 79 81

E-mail : wascalne@wascal-ne.org

B.P: 10662 FAST Niamey