Master's Research Programs
CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
The following persons contributed to the success of the workshop: Prof. Rabani Adamou (UAM); Prof. Harouna Moussa (UAM); Dr. Inoussa Maarouhi (WASCAL, UAM), Dr. Karimoun Massalatchi Illyassou (WASCAL, UAM); Dr. Inoussa Abdou Saley (UAM); Dr. Mounkaila Moussa (UAM); Dr. Boubacar Ibrahim (UAM); Dr. Hassane Adamou Hassane (WASCAL, UAM) ; Mr. Tahirou Garba (Engineer in Electronics and solar energy, businessman in the area of Solar Systems); Dr. Soule Moussa (UAM); Mr. Souley Kallo Moutari (PhD student, UAM); Mr. Hama Hamidou Harouna (Financial agent, WASCAL); Mr. Abdoul Moumine Amadou Tiné (WASCAL, UAM); Dr. Uchechukwu Nnamdi (guest speaker, Nigeria); Prof. Isioma ILE (guest speaker, South Africa); Prof. Julien Adounkpe (guest speaker, Benin); Dr. Ouattara Mamadou; Dr. Solomon Agbo (guest speaker, Germany); Mr. Hima Abdou (expert in agribusiness); JVE, YALI, WASCAL ALUMNI, CSDAC, PAUWES-CCGC.
ZEF-WASCAL-PAUWES are three collaborative institutions complementing each other’s effort towards building capacity and research in the field of water, Energy and Climate Change in Africa. The overall aim of this collaboration is to strengthen African institutions and to increase the effectiveness of German support. It is in this context that the 3rd ZEF-WASCAL-PAUWES workshop was held in Niamey (Niger) from 24th September to 5th October 2019. The workshop was facilitated by lecturers and scientists from the WASCAL region and from Niger and from partner countries. This report will describe each activity done each day during the 10 days of the workshop.
The workshop was attended by 20 students, policy and engineering students from different nationalities where 10 are from the host institute the WAC-SRT in Niamey and 10 are from the PAUWES or Pan African University Institute for Water and Energy Sciences in Tlemcen Algeria. 7 of the participants were females and 13 were males. The list of participants is presented in table 1 and table 2
WASCAL /UAM Students
PAUWES / Tlemcen Students
D. Activities conducted during the workshop
The main activities carried out during the workshop can be organized around seven groups of activities:
Lecture sessions: focusing on research methodology, literature review and Master thesis proposal writing;
Interaction with stakeholders;
Visit National Museum;
Oral presentation of research proposals;
CSDAC 1st international forum on SDGs.
An opening ceremony and a closing ceremony were also organized at the beginning and end of the workshop.
2. Literature review
The course presented by Prof. Harouna Moussa was focused on literature review and was well delivered with relevant examples and case studies. Impact factor, as a criterion used to rank the quality of research papers was introduced to students. Students also learnt about some open access journals such as eJDS- eJournals Delivery Service, MDPA, Base-search, These.fr, Archives Ouvertes, Global Science gateway, Science.gov, Open AIRE, Readoc.fr, Agricola. Etc.
In the morning session of the second day of the workshop, all the students were working on their individual Projects for elaborating the research proposal for master thesis. After the coffee break, Mr. Lucas from the ITT (Institute for Technology and Resources Management in the Topics and Subtropics) presented his project proposal on “Potential Improvements of Urban Agricultural Yields by Implementing Solar Driven Irrigation Systems in Niamey”. Each step of the proposal, from the introduction to the planning was discussed with the whole class and amendments were done where necessary. The session was coordinated by Professor Rabani Adamou.
Globally, the lecture on research methodology and literature review was an interesting and participative course for the participants since all of the students are preparing their master thesis. From this workshop, each student was required to find a topic for his master thesis, apply the methodology which was taught and present his research proposal on 3rd October
3. Thesis writing and common errors
This lecture was delivered by Dr. Uchechukwu I. Nnamdi from Crawford University, Nigeria. The lecturer focused on thesis writing and common errors. As part of this course, students were taken into through several notions such as: tips of effective language learning, common mistakes to avoid making during the language (especially English) learning, punctuation errors to avoid, Pronunciation: Improving Speaking Ability, grammar mistakes, tautology, wrong creations, etc. Also, as part of this course, the lecturer has checked the comprehension of the students through some assignment that she gave to the students.
4. Scientific writing: Powerpoint and Poster presentations
The lecture was handled by Dr. Moussa Soule and focused on:
Types of scientific writing
Example of IMRAD model
PowerPoint and poster presentations skills.
Dr. Moussa Soule highlighted that a scientific writing is a writing based upon knowledge of a particular branch to produce solutions on the basis of theories and postulation. Some type of scientific writing is like: Journal articles, review article, research article, Case Studies, Conference papers, thesis (BSC, MSC, PhD), book of abstract etc. The lecturer has also shared with students how to choose the right journal for publication and how to assess a good journal. It is to highlight that the characteristics of a scientific writing are: clear, simple, avoid technical terms, jargon, neutral, accurate objective, etc. He describes IMRAD as a scientific writing model which began by Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion. He mentioned also that the outline of the poster presentation is as follow: Tittle, Abstract, Introduction, Objectives, Methods, Results, Discussion and Conclusion. Finally, it was mentioned that to succeed a nice poster presentation, a good prepare and practice is needed for any type of presentation.
4. SDGs and AU agenda 2063
The online presentation was held by Prof. Isioma ILE and her colleagues from the University of Coast in South Africa on SDGs and AU agenda 2063.
Professor Isioma stressed that researchers should implement the agenda 2063 and SDGs when carrying out research work. In fact, according to Prof. Isioma, less funds are being provided for research in Africa and therefore, Africa had one of the lowest publications across the world. Apart of her lecture, Professor Isioma conducted an exercise where she asked each individual to assess whether their Research topic triangulated into combining all the aspects of the Agenda 2063 and SDGs. After the exercise, she asked for three volunteers from WAC-SRT and PAUWES to present their triangulated topics and made three of her colleagues to present first so that the students understand the exercise better. The volunteers presented and afterwards got feedback from Professor Isioma and her colleagues giving them more advice on how to incorporate the Agenda. After the exercise, Professor Isioma concluded and ended the session.
3. Research opportunities with Germany Higher Education and Research Center: Case of JULICH
The presentation of “research opportunities with Germany higher education and research Centre: case of Julich” was presented by Dr. Solomon Agbo who is a fellow at the JULICH Centre in Germany. He highlighted on what their Centre does, and the various opportunities that exist for researchers who want to do cutting edge research. After questions and answer session with regards to the research opportunities that exist in Germany, Dr. Solomon ended the session.
C. Trip and day 0
Leaving Algeria in the evening of 23rd September, the 10 PAUWES students selected for ZEF-WASCAL-PAUWES workshop arrived in Niamey on 24th September at 1am. The administrative consultant for WASCAL-PAUWES-ZEF capacity building, Dr. Karimoun Massalatchi Illyassou and Geraldo Favi (the WAC-SRT students’ representative welcomed the PAUWES students at the Niamey airport. After vaccination against yellow fever and Meningitis at the airport for those who did not have their yellow The day of 24th was dedicated for arrival of participants (PAUWES students and lecturers) and also for the regularization of the visa process for three of students who needed visa.
vaccination card, the students were held to EMIG where they were hosted for only 2 days before moving to ICRISAT center.
I. Lecture sessions
1. Research methodology and Master thesis proposal writing
The lecture presented by Prof. Rabani Adamou on research methodology for Master’s Project Proposal writing allows the students to know the importance of Master thesis proposal and the steps for writing it. They have learnt about the stages of development of Master’s project proposal and the standard format composed by abstract, proposal and time plan. They students have learnt about the administrative steps to follow from submitting the proposal until the thesis defense. Then, Prof. Rabani Adamou gave the outline of a research proposal and then, explained in details each thesis research proposal key points which are the introduction, the problem statement, the objectives, the research question, the hypothesis, the methodology and finally the milestones, timeline and budget.
III. Field trips
1. Field visit to Sekoukou
The village is located in Kollo department (Tillabery Region), which is about 50 Km from Niamey. It constitutes a research and learning site (open-air laboratory) for the Master program in sustainable rural transformation (WAC-SRT). It offers a good environment for students to appraise in a practical and real life context on the deployment of renewable energy technologies (solar photovoltaic systems applications) for rural electrification and socio-economic empowerment of local communities.
Sekoukou village has a population of about 800 inhabitants, organized in three sub- settlements. Its inhabitants live mostly from farming, livestock raising, and fishing. Before the WAC-SRT project, the community was not connected to the grid and had no access to electricity and to potable drinking water. The Sekoukou community was selected because it demonstrated a strong willingness and commitment to host, and embark in the project activities.
The first point of call was at the solar water pumping system which constitutes a borehole of 63 meters, a 15 m3 cube tank and eight panels of 250W DC. The installation is servicing five taps in the village thereby providing clean water to the inhabitants. In order to enhance the sustainability of the system, access to the water is charged at different prices ranging from 5 FCfa to 50 Fcfa depending on the quantity of water needed. The residents of Sekoukou have so far commended the project and highlighted that it has enhanced their wellbeing and eliminated the burden of drinking contaminated water from the river.
Upon inspecting the water installation, the students moved on to see the automatic metrological data station powered by a PV + battery system. It provides data on several parameters such as temperature, humidity, wind speed, solar radiation and wind direction. This station was established in 2018 and is among 50 other stations in West Africa. The significance of the station cannot be overemphasized as it provides relevant information to both decision makers and farmers.
The Sekoukou village has also a solar plant of 42 PV panels under construction. With an installed capacity of 11KW, the installation is expected to supply electricity to the village upon completion.
The availability of water and electricity in Sekoukou equally enabled the construction of a fish pond in 2018. This pond is expected to go a long way in addressing the nutritional needs of the village and beyond.
The visit to Sekoukou was exciting and at the same time educative and interactive for students. Indeed, this visit exposes the students not only to practical solutions implemented in the village, but it also gave them a deep insight as to how energy can impact positively on the lives of people. The visit ended with a short meeting with the village women and on the river where the team visited the level of water and discuss on irrigation possibilities.
2. Market solar energy equipment: visit to YANDALUX-NIGER
At the Mynthe’s shop, the students were welcomed by the Director (Mr Minthe) and his staffs to the Yandalux solar GmbH. He gave them a tour of his solar energy equipment which includes, solar panels, surface and deep-water pumps, inverters and batteries each of various capacities and functions. We went through the questions and answer sections after which we ended the trip with a group picture
For information, additional information on the program:
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B.P: 10662 FAST Niamey
II. Interaction with stakeholders
1. Interaction with stakeholders in Energy sector
The students also had the opportunity during the workshop to interact with actors in energy sector. Indeed, the use of energy and the strategies of implementation of new energy technologies involve multiple stakeholders. It is in this context that the former director of Sekoukou and Mr. Tahirou Garba, an engineer in electronics and entrepreneur in the area of design, installation, and maintenance of solar systems taught that the PV market is potential in Niger. This session was coordinated by Dr. Mounkaila Moussa and took place in Sekoukou village.
2. Interaction with stakeholders in Agriculture sector
The next interaction centered on Agriculture technologies, innovation and business. The presentation was done by Mr.Hima Abdou who is an agribusiness expert. Mr. Hima gave an exposer on the agribusiness situation of Niger and the potential that exist for more people to venture. He however, underscored a major challenge of the Niger agriculture value chain which has to do with packaging. Participants were educated on agribusiness status and opportunities in cereals, legumes, meat among others. Participants asked several questions that were appropriately answered. It’s interesting to note that this section was ably moderated by prof. Julien Adounkpe, director of the WASCAL Center in Benin.